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Вы здесь: ПубликацииСантехнические работы • Использование автономных систем канализации

Использование автономных систем канализации

Автор: Ravshan
Источник: Как построить дом
Опубликовано: 22 июля 2012 в 19:46 [12]

Автономная система канализации - это отличное решение проблем, которые связаны с водоотводом бытовых стоков на даче или в районах, в которых отсутствует сеть водоснабжения и канализации. Эта система применяется для удаления твёрдых и жидких продуктов жизнедеятельности, а также для очищения сточных вод от разного вида загрязнений. Принцип работы множества таких систем выполняется, учитывая жизненный цикл бактерий, которые развиваются на органических соединениях, в изобилии находящихся в сточной воде. Анаэробные бактерии размножаются без поступления кислорода. Другие бактерии, называемые аэробные, нуждаются в кислородной среде для жизни и своего участия в работе брожения осадка сточных вод.

Есть разные автономные системы канализации. У каждой из них есть свои достоинства и недостатки. Простой способ отвода сточных вод, который идеально подходит при нерегулярном и редком их сбросе, - это установить на участке накопительную ёмкость. Являясь недорогим приобретением, она не нуждается в электропитания. К недостаткам этого устройства можно отметить необходимость его постоянного очищения. Увеличение объёма сброса сточных вод будет требовать замену, то есть использовать накопительную ёмкость большего объёма, которая, конечно же, будет занимать и площадь участка больше.

Решая создать на участке дачи систему автономной канализации на основе септика с работой фильтрации, нужно учитывать анализ уровня грунтовых вод и вида самой почвы. Песочный грунт считается самым удобным для строительства септика. Он хорошо фильтруется, в крайней ситуации можно применить суглинок. Расстояние от дренажной трубы или дна колодца до грунтовых вод должно составлять не меньше 1,5 метров, а от уровня почвы - приблизительно 3 метра. Такая система не нуждается в электропитании, занимает мало места и очищается один раз в год. Это - прекрасное соотношение качества и цены услуг по очистке отходов.

Септик с биофильтром без каких-либо проблем можно устанавливать на почве, которая плохо впитывает. Чаще всего применяется для этой системы автономная насосная станция. Кроме этого, не все системы автономной канализации, которые основаны на эксплуатации септика с биофильтром, дают возможность использовать продукты очистки воды в виде биологических удобрений.

Самый лучший результат очищения сточных вод гарантирует система, в которой имеется принудительная биологическая очистка, которая называется аэрация. Но, несмотря на то, что эту систему можно устанавливать на почве с плохой впитываемостью, она имеет много недостатков. К ним относится дорогая стоимость оборудования и его установка. Система нуждается в постоянном обслуживании, её работа очень чувствительна к попаданию в сточные воды жировых отходов. Наличие в сточных водах моющих средств сильно уменьшает качество очищения воды.

Перед тем, как установить автономную систему канализации, необходимо удостовериться в том, можно ли проводить на участке строительно-монтажные работы с использованием тяжёлой техники. Важный момент в обустройстве канализации собственного дома или коттеджа - это обязательно нужно соблюдать требования Госсанэпиднадзора и службы охраны природы в отношении очищения сточных вод.

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