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Вы здесь: ПубликацииЭтапы строительства • Этап 8. Канализация

Этап 8. Канализация

Автор: Ravshan
Источник: Как построить дом своими руками
Опубликовано: 19 апреля 2013 в 09:00 [79]

Проблема канализации в частных домах может решаться двумя способами. Первый, более простой и быстрый - подключение домовой канализационной сети к трубам магистральной канализации. Второй способ реализуется во всех местах, где централизованная сеть отсутствует - оборудуется локальная канализационная сеть.

Задача локальной канализации - организация отвода сточных вод с последующей их утилизацией и очисткой, не выходя при этом за территорию жилого участка. При этом сброс очищенных вод или фильтрация их в почву не должны в долговременной перспективе приводить к загрязнению почвы или расположенных поблизости водоёмов. Место сброса очищенных сточных вод, также, как и степень их очистки, проходит обязательной согласование со всеми природоохранными инстанциями и представителями местной администрации.

Оборудование локальной канализации производится после обязательных предварительных расчётов расходов потребления воды. По существующим нормативам, суточное потребление воды семьи из пяти человек в домах с установленной ванной и индивидуальными водонагревателями составляет следующие цифры: расход воды - 0,9 куб.метра, часовой водоотвод - 0,09 куб.м.

Схематически локальная канализация любого типа выглядит следующим образом: трубы домашней канализации соединяются с дворовой канализационной системой, по которой стоки поступают в локальное очистное сооружение.

Локальное (автономное) очистное сооружение может быть одного из следующих видов:

  • Выгребная яма - самый дешёвый вид очистного сооружения, представляет собой вырытую в земле яму, где накапливаются все отходы. Требует частого опорожнения посредством специальной техники, биологически загрязняет почву, неприятные запахи могут распространяться по всему участку.
  • Накопительные ёмкости - стоки поступают в герметичную ёмкость из пластика, врытую в землю. Благодаря тому, что стоки не просачиваются непосредственно в грунт, такое очистное сооружение позволяет избежать загрязнения почвы. Требует частой очистки, вынуждает экономить воду (чтобы избежать слишком быстрого наполнения резервуара).
  • Механические очистные сооружения (септики). Очищение стоков происходит механическим способом без помощи кислорода (анаэробно). Септики состоят из нескольких секций, в каждой из которых происходит очистка стоков на определённом уровне. Секций может быть от двух до четырёх. Очищенная вода через специальную дренажную смесь (песок и гравий) фильтруется в землю.
  • Биологические очистные сооружения очищают стоки при участии кислорода с помощью аэробных бактерий. Культура бактерий помещается в фильтрующие резервуары, в которых и происходит переработки загрязнений (путём окисления органики в нейтральные химические вещества). Данный способ очистки стоков считается наиболее перспективным - он позволяет получить максимальную степень очистки вод, удаляя при этом и возможные неприятные запахи.
Этап 9. Отопление и водоснабжениеКак построить дом своими рукамиЭтап 7. Электрика
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Другие интересные публикации:

Этап 9. Отопление и водоснабжение
Этап 10. Системы вентиляции
Этап 1. Выбор участка
Этап 2. Разработка проекта дома
Этап 3. Фундамент. Работы нулевого цикла
Этап 4. Возведение внешних и внутренних стен

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