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Вы здесь: ПубликацииЭтапы строительства • Этап 5. Крыши

Этап 5. Крыши

Автор: Ravshan
Источник: Как построить дом своими руками
Опубликовано: 19 апреля 2013 в 09:00 [82]

Архитектура дома может рассказать очень многое о стиле жизни и мировоззрении его хозяев. И важнейшим элементом в визуальном восприятии загородной усадьбы, безусловно, является крыша. Только после её возведения дом приобретает свой законченный образ. Именно крыша окончательно реализует в действительности ту идею, которую некоторое время назад придумал и воплотил в проекте архитектор.

На возведение конструкции крыши в среднем уходит до 15% общей стоимости строительства (сумма зависит от вида сооружаемой конструкции).

Рассмотрим основные типы крыш, применяемые в индивидуальном строительстве.

Крыши скатного типа

Классический вариант крыш для северных регионов, природные условия в которых регулярно балуют человека разными видами осадков. Поверхность скатной крыши расположена под равномерным уклоном, это обеспечивает эффективную защиту от дождевой воды и снега. Количество скатов в крышах подобного типа может быть различным - от одного (чаще всего применяются в строениях сарайного типа), двух (классический домик-«избушка»), до четырёх (крыша-«пирамидка», вальмовая, шатровая крыша). При увеличении числа скатов функциональные характеристики крыши не ухудшаются.

Крыша скатного типа

С точки зрения удобства и необходимых для возведения затрат наиболее простым и дешёвым вариантом считается двускатная крыша.

Крыши мансардного типа

Мансардная крыша позволяет оборудовать чердачное помещения как дополнительное жилое пространство. Конструкция мансардной крыши более сложная, для удобства её использования балки и раскосы не должны располагаться во внутреннем пространстве. К тому же крышу воздвигаемой мансарды, в отличие от нежилого чердака, необходимо утеплять. Также обязательным атрибутом такого типа крыш являются большие мансардные окна, которые выступают как дополнительный источник света в помещении.

Крыша мансардного типа

Крыши плоского типа

В последнее время стремительно набирает популярность плоская конструкция крыш. Хотя такие крыши исторически типичны скорее для южных регионов - вспомните классические средиземноморские белые домики, которые, как правило, всегда имеют плоскую крышу. При оборудовании плоской крыши полученное пространство можно использовать самыми разными способами. Например, на плоской крыше можно соорудить бассейн, зимний сад или спортивную площадку. Ещё один вариант плоских крыш - так называемые «зелёные» крыши, когда в качестве кровельного материала выступает почва с растущей на ней зеленью.

Крыша плоского типа

Решение проблемы отвода дождевой воды с плоской крыши возможно при помощи системы водосточных труб - поверхность крыши делается с небольшим уклоном, благодаря чему обеспечивается сток воды в нужном направлении. Главный недостаток плоских крыш - излишнее нагревание пространств, расположенных непосредственно под поверхностью крыши в летнее время. Проблема решается при помощи оборудования вентилируемой чердачной «прослойки» или специальных воздушных пустот между кровлей и жилым помещением.

Этап 6. Установка окон и входных дверей. Внешняя отделкаКак построить дом своими рукамиЭтап 4. Возведение внешних и внутренних стен
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Другие интересные публикации:

Этап 6. Установка окон и входных дверей. Внешняя отделка
Этап 7. Электрика
Этап 8. Канализация
Этап 9. Отопление и водоснабжение
Этап 10. Системы вентиляции
Этап 1. Выбор участка

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